纽约市因未能保护一名监护人而付出了高昂的代价

上周一,4月28日,U.S.联邦审判法院法官乔治B。丹尼尔斯被判刑三人在纽约市一项腐败计划的中心,每项腐败计划耗资6亿至20年,每项都被判入狱。这个计划很简单。and the vulnerability of a government as large and sophisticated as that of New York City to it,这是一个很明显的提醒,即合同管理是政府控制腐败的一项非常重要的职责,而这项职责听起来更为平淡无奇。

纽约的骗局源于$63 million contract to modernize its payroll system.Software contracts,就像建筑合同一样,如果不是几年的话,可能需要几个月才能完成,并且可能需要修改,因为承包商在起草合同时遇到了无法预料的问题。可能需要比最初预计更多的计算机代码来捕捉某些部门的员工记录他们工作时间的方式;一条道路可能需要重新布线,因为原路线的地面不稳定。但也可能是不需要更多的代码或原路线是好的。相反,这可能只是因为承包商正在寻找一种从政府中榨取更多资金的方法。

为了解决这个问题,政府通常依靠专家专家来评估承包商的变更单请求。Often these professionals also decide whether the completed project meets contract specifications.  They thus serve as guardians of project quality and integrity.  What happened in New York was simple: the guards deserted their post,conspiring with the contractor to bilk the city of out hundreds of millions of dollars. Where the city erred was its failure to heed the famous question attributed to the Roman satirist Juvenal:谁看守守卫者??

注意到这个问题并给出一个令人满意的答案是,of course,两件不同的事情。一个政府能做些什么来避免那种让纽约市损失这么多钱的勾结?Continue reading渐次

Yes,腐败不利于发展。不,Corruption Is Not a Western Obsession

Recently there has been a spate of commentary in the blogosphere that revives a set of tired old canards 188bet appabout corruption and development — the related claims (1) that the focus on corruption and governance in the development discourse is misplaced,because there isn't a lot of evidence that corruption matters much for development,减贫,等。;and (2) that anticorruption is a fixation of wealthy,大部分是西方国家,因为它使这些国家的人民能够为自己的道德操守而祝贺,并看不起穷人的习惯和做法,188bet app偏僻的南方。最近的例子包括克里斯布莱特曼's posts on his blog (在这里,在这里,and在这里米迦勒道尔对法律与发展博客的贡献(在这里and在这里)andJason Hickelpost on Al Jazeera English,尽管还有其他的。

Sigh.我们真的需要再经历一遍吗?好啊,看:是的,there are still lots of unanswered questions 188bet appabout corruption's causes and consequences,对经济发展各方面的意义。And yes,some anticorruption zealots have sometimes over-hyped the role of corruption relative to other factors.But the overwhelming weight of the evidence supports the claim that corruption is a big problem with significant adverse consequences for a range of development outcomes.而且证据也很清楚,将腐败作为发展的一个重要障碍的关注来自贫穷国家的穷人,与富裕的西方/北方精英一样多。

博客文章并不是深入研究有关腐败负面影响的大型学术文献的最佳形式。因此,我所答复的职位可能会被原谅,因为他们普遍没有提供足够的证据来支持他们声称腐败对发展相对不重要的说法,主要是西方的痴迷。But,至少让我试着把谈话从没有根据的声明转移到对实际证据的评估上,从腐败对发展的影响开始。

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中国反腐倡廉运动正进入一个转折点。

Xi Jinping在他就任总统18个月后,几乎和他在中国反腐败十字军的任期一样长。作为Wall Street Journal注意as early as May 2013,anticorruption purges are hardly new in China,but President Xi seems to be pursuing his anticorruption drive with unprecedented vigour and commitment.Zhou Yongkang,最新的,也可以说是最突出的清洗受害者,有证据表明这次different.香农铁泽最近在A做了同样的基础点piece外交官.太太Tiezzi takes issue with the oft-repeated声称总统习近平只是利用反腐败来削弱政治对手并促进他的盟友;她指出,尽管习主席确实利用了扫除的优势,但政治上的内讧并不是他唯一的动机。自从如果是“他现在可能会结束竞选活动”。

我不反对女士。Tiezzi的观点。习主席的反腐败运动是他任期内的核心,无疑比他之前的其他人走得更远。党员18.2万多人,包括17名高级官员,自从他就任总统以来就因腐败受到惩罚。Yet despite this progress,最近的信号表明,在不久的将来,他的竞选活动可能会大大减少。

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南非的腐败与耻辱:当前事件的教训

在他的近期职位,约旦指出,经合组织反贿赂工作组最近批准了一份关于南非不遵守《反贿赂公约》的“严厉”报告。He described group members' frustration at hitting "a brick wall" as their criticisms fail to effect any change in South Africa.Noting that the Convention's primary mechanism of enforcing compliance is shame created by critical reports,乔丹问了一个非常重要和挑衅的问题:“如果羞耻还不够怎么办?”未来的帖子将探索一个可能存在的改变的选项,扩大,或者执行公约,但有一个先例,empirical question: How is the shame mechanism working so far?Continue reading渐次

每年1万亿美元贿赂的来源数字

In my最后一篇文章,我讨论了我试图追查被广泛引用的“每年1万亿美元的贿赂支付”数据来源的失败尝试(除了2004年世界银行的新闻稿,这篇文章引用了一篇未发表的研究,但没有进一步引证。几位读者非常友好地将我引向了1万亿美元数字上最好的出版来源:Theappendix in a chapter通过丹尼尔·考夫曼World Economic Forum's2005-2006Global Competitiveness Report.  The chapter addresses most—though perhaps not all—of my concerns.

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Income and Asset Disclosure Statements: No Anticorruption Magic Bullet

在几个月的时间里,我第二次向反腐败机构的领导解释,一项要求高级官员披露收入的计划,188bet app资产,他们个人财务的其他细节不会结束腐败,就这点而言,cure the common cold or otherwise solve all their nation's ills.  There seems to be some kind of myth floating around the development community and at least some self-anointed anticorruption "experts" that such a program can by itself lead to the exposure of a great deal,如果不是全部,破坏活动。

如果真的这么简单就好了。事实是证据指向了相反的方向。Continue reading渐次

“每年1万亿美元的贿赂”数字来自哪里?

Given the generally accepted view that bribery is widespread around the world,对特定的数字太过纠结是没有意义的。这就是说,我已经看到(大约)每年1万亿美元的贿赂金额有相当大的波动,and I was curious where that number came from.  It seems to me it would be very difficult for even the most intrepid researcher to come up with a plausible ballpark estimate of the total dollar amount of annual bribe transactions.在网上和一些相关的文献中搜索了一下之后,I'm coming up empty.到目前为止,我可以说:Continue reading渐次