美国能Efforts To Fight Vote Buying Offer Lessons for Others?

Vote buying—the practice of providing or promising cash,gifts,jobs,或者其他对选民有价值的东西,诱使他们在选举中支持候选人,在163个国家是非法的,然而它是一个widespread and seemingly intractable problem在发展中国家的许多地方。在加纳,例如,在职者分配outboard motorsto fishermen和食物农村选民。In the Philippines,politicians distributecash and plum short-term jobs.In 2015,尼日利亚在职人员大米袋with images of the president ahead of the election.And Werner Herzog's 2010 documentary filmHappy Peopleshows a politician cheerfully delivering dried goodsalong with musical entertainment到西伯利亚一个完全孤立的猎人村(影片拍摄49分钟)。Thus,recent instances of vote buying are more varied than the simple cash for vote exchange;其中包括授予赞助职位和有目的地将社会支出作为政治支持的奖励。

买票不仅扭曲了选举结果,但这也伤害了这种做法猖獗的(通常是贫穷的)社区。It might be tempting to say that at least those who sell their votes receive某物从他们的政府,but in fact,一旦这些公民被收买,their broader interests are left out of the government's decision-making process,因为向该集团提供公共物品的动机消失了。在菲律宾的一项研究,例如,found that vote buying correlates with lower public investments in health and higher rates of malnourishment in children.

虽然一些评论员偶尔(并屈尊地)认为,购买选票是非西方政治准则和期望的产物,this could not be further from the truth.Although wealthy democracies like the United States today experience very little crude vote buying,vote buying in the U.S.was once just as severe as anything we see today in the developing world.In fact,during George Washington's first campaign for public office in 1758,他把整个竞选预算都花在了酒精上。in an effort to woo voters to the polls.由19thcentury,cash and food occasionally supplemented the booze,particularly in times of depression.直到1948年,一未来的总统通过买票和彻底的欺诈赢得了他的参议院竞选。

Yet while U.S.politics today is certainly not corruption-free (seeherehere,和here),它设法(主要)解决了购买选票的特殊问题。Does the relative success of certain U.S.努力对年轻的民主国家有什么教训?One must always be cautious in drawing lessons from the historical experience of countries like the U.S.对于现代后殖民地国家,这两个原因都是因为背景大不相同,而且暗示其他国家可以向美国学习。experience can sometimes come off as patronizing.尽管如此,美国打击购买选票的历史战略的某些方面可能与那些目前正努力解决这一问题的国家有关。让我重点介绍其中一些:Continue reading渐次

美国选民们说腐败是一个重大问题。Why Are Politicians Silent on It?

If public opinion polls are any guide,corruption is one of the most important issues to U.S.voters.一2012年盖洛普调查by Gallup found that a full 87% of Americans deemed reducing corruption as either extremely important or very important—placing this issue second only to the economy/job creation,and ahead of the budget deficit,恐怖主义,以及社会保障。More recent polls buttress these findings: A 2015survey调查发现,58%的受访者害怕或非常害怕政府官员的腐败行为,所有被调查的恐惧中最高的。This meant that corruption was a greater fear than large-scale disasters like terrorist attacks or economic collapse,以及个人事件,如身份盗窃,running out of money,或者信用卡诈骗。在2015年接受调查的人中,四分之三的人还认为腐败普遍的在政府里,比2007年显著增加。一个2016survey发现16%的人认为腐败是最重要的问题,which might sound low,but was the third highest issue in the polls.

尽管有这些民意调查,美国政治家和政党似乎没有把反腐败作为主要的政策优先事项;certainly this issue gets far less attention than terrorism and the budget deficit.真的,美国政客们有时会攻击他们的对手“腐败”,这是我们在当前选举中看到的一种修辞策略(见herehere).But although politicians use the term "corrupt" to malign their opponents,他们似乎不把腐败视为真正需要解决的问题,不提出反腐败政策议程。Hillary Clinton has an extensive list of policy proposals on her campaign website,然而,腐败和反腐败是未提及.尽管她的网站深入探讨政治上的金钱,188bet app它停止使用术语“腐败”来描述这个问题。Donald Trump did recently release a五点伦理计划that used the term "corruption" once,但这是令人难以置信的模糊,似乎是在竞选的最后几天出于绝望。无论如何,his "Issues" page stilldoes not mentioncorruption,第三方候选人也不例外Gary JohnsonJill Stein,or埃文·麦克马伦.

What explains this disconnect?Huge numbers of Americans tell opinion pollsters that they believe that the government is corrupt and that this is one of the biggest problems facing the country.然而,政党和政治家们几乎不讨论“腐败”(除了谩骂),也不制定解决腐败的计划。This is a puzzle.Politicians,毕竟,have strong incentives to talk 188bet appabout the issues that voters care most about.Even if we doubt how seriously we should take politicians' platforms and campaign rhetoric,有人会认为,政治家们至少口头上支持打击公共腐败的想法是有道理的,if voters care so much 188bet appabout it.那么,我们为什么没有在美国的平台上看到更多关于腐败和反腐败的关注呢?总统候选人?

Continue reading渐次

Guest Post: Behavioral Economics,惩罚,对反腐败斗争的信心

以下是客人的帖子,byRoberto de Michele,Principal Specialist in the Institutional Capacity of the State Division at the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB),is a translated and slightly modified version of apost那个先生德米歇尔最初发表在西班牙语上IDB's governance blogon August 29,2016:

去年八月,Hugo Alconada Mon,one of Argentina's most prestigious investigative journalists,发表了一篇文章文章(西班牙语)描述了阿根廷的道路建设公司如何创建一个卡特尔来固定公共工程合同。Members of the cartel would meet in the board room of the sector chamber to conduct their business.The room has a statue of我们的卢金夫人,patroness of Argentina.Before commencing negotiations to fix contracts,分配“赢家”,分配收益,members of the cartel would turn around the image of Our Lady of Luján to face the wall,with her back to those gathered there.是,正如一位消息人士直截了当地说的,"so that she doesn't see what we were 188bet appabout to do." This remark got me thinking about two possible explanations on why we break the law,作弊,对政府和其他人撒谎。Continue reading渐次

Nigeria's Former First Lady: Stop Attacking Me for Gifts I Received

Ex-Nigerian First Lady Patience Jonathan's patience is being tested by a campaign of calumny being waged against her.  Since her husband left office in 2015 she has been under constant attack merely because she recieved some small gifts from friends and well-wishers while her husband served in government.The Nigerian NGOSocio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project试图迫使当局对她和经济金融犯罪委员会提起刑事诉讼,Nigeria's anticorruption 188bet appagency,欲望to seize the gifts.

很容易看出为什么攻击在考验耐心的耐心。礼物都很小,some as little as $800,总共只有1500万美元。此外,正如她反复解释的那样,她与以他人名义存入银行账户的钱无关。An assistant did that without telling her,在任何情况下,它为什么重要?She was the only one authorized to write checks on the account.

感谢前第一夫人,members of the Union of Niger Delta Youth Organisation for Equity,正义和善政已经成为她的辩护理由。Jonathan the group asked the Federal High Court in Lagos to禁止非政府组织色拉从“在进一步诽谤中采取任何进一步步骤,condemnation and conviction of the Former First Lady Mrs Dame Patience Jonathan...以及在为此目的而使用司法程序的过程中,对任何强迫联邦检察长起诉原告/申请人拥有合法私人财产的申请进行了极其公开的追查。..“集团的complaint seeking the injunction against SERPA继续详细说明对耐心女神的批评是多么不公正-Continue reading渐次

The Walmart FCPA Investigation Revisited (Again): Some Musings and Speculations on the Most Recent Reports

Earlier this month,有另一个有趣的故事188bet app关于美国政府调查沃尔玛海外业务可能违反《反海外腐败法》的新进展。沃尔玛案可能是过去十年中最引人注目的(也是最具争议的)反海外腐败案,报告表明,这可能最终会得出一个结论,尽管最近的故事提出的问题比它能回答的多。

Before proceeding to the most recent developments,here's a quick,当然过于简单化了,回顾:2005,Walmart received a report from a disgruntled former employee that its Mexican subsidiary had engaged in an extensive bribery scheme to pay off government officials to speed the opening of new stores.内部调查后,however,沃尔玛的高管在2006年决定不采取有意义的行动,也不向美国政府披露明显违反《反海外腐败法》的行为。2011,Walmart's new general counsel initiated a review of Walmart's anticorruption compliance worldwide;this audit revealed evidence of significant problems in several countries,including Mexico,China,Brazil,and India.大约在同一时间,Walmart learned that reporters from theNew York Times正在对沃尔玛墨西哥业务的贿赂指控进行广泛调查。为了在故事前露脸,in December 2011 Walmart disclosed to the DOJ and SEC potential FCPA problems in its Mexican subsidiary,但表示,这些问题仅限于少数个别情况。2012年4月和12月,theNew York Timespublished two lengthy articles (herehere)详细介绍沃尔玛墨西哥子公司的巨额贿赂,由该子公司的首席执行官和总法律顾问协调的指控远远超出了沃尔玛去年披露的孤立事件。从那时起,the DOJ and SEC investigation into Walmart's alleged FCPA violations—not only in Mexico,but in other foreign subsidiaries as well—has been ongoing.

这个故事有不少曲折。也许最引人注目的是《华尔街日报》令人惊讶的报告,几乎一年前。该报告的重点包括(来自“熟悉调查的人”)声称(1)调查几乎完成(以及,by implication,the case would be resolved soon);(2)美国政府的调查发现“墨西哥的重大不当行为迹象不多”;(3)尽管调查发现了印度“普遍但相对较小的付款”的证据,事实证明,沃尔玛案“比调查人员最初预期的要小得多”,“不太可能导致任何重大处罚”。

The first of those three claims has been refuted by the passage of time—it's more than a year after the华尔街日报story,and the case has still not been resolved.后两项主张与最近的报告彭博社出版(也基于匿名的“知情人士”)。据彭博社报道:Continue reading渐次

Asking Too Much: Why Regional Human Rights Courts Cannot Tackle Corruption

Should regional human rights courts,例如美洲人权法院(IACHR)和欧洲人权法院(ECHR),扩大他们的任务范围,明确解决腐败问题?评论员探讨了将腐败纳入人权框架的可能性(见herehere),and in a previous post,Kaitlin Beach specifically explored the benefits of utilizing regional human rights courts to address corruption (seeherehere).Kaitlin emphasizes certain advantages that regional human rights courts have,主要是在他们可以要求的赔偿类型上的灵活性。这使他们能够在国家一级下令进行结构性反腐败改革,as opposed to simply issuing individual indictments.

Despite these advantages,though,we should not get our hopes too high 188bet appabout the role these courts can play in the fight against corruption.的确,凯特琳指出,区域人权机构在打击腐败方面所能发挥的生产性作用,IACHR目前因缺乏合规机制而举步维艰,效率低下,金融不稳定。These setbacks have caused the IACHR to have only limited success in combating human rights abuses.To expect an institution that is still struggling to fulfill its original mandate to also take on an additional mission is unrealistic,此外,增加这一额外的负担将进一步使像审调处这样的法院可用于补救侵犯人权问题的有限资源紧张。

Consider the following limitations of the IACHR,这也是其他区域人权机构的特点,and which make it unlikely that these institutions will be able to do what some anticorruption advocates hope:Continue reading渐次

Anticorruption Bibliography–October 2016 Update

An updated version of my anticorruption bibliography is available from myfaculty webpage.完整书目的PDF直接链接是here,and a list of the new sources added in this update ishere.

快速提示:在图书馆和我的行政助理的帮助下,I'm in the process of shifting the bibliography from a simple text document to a citation-management database.We're still working out the kinks,and so you may notice a few weird or different things 188bet appabout the formatting.We're hoping to get this worked out by the next update.我们还希望最终将书目放在一个可以搜索和按字段排序的表单中,instead of just one long pdf.所以,as the standard line goes,“请原谅我们在装修时的样子。”

As always,I welcome188bet app 对于尚未包括的其他来源,包括Gab读者写的任何论文。