总统权力争夺:蒙古的腐败和民主倒退

蒙古民主正处于困境中。3月26日,哈尔特马·巴图尔加总统拟议的紧急立法这将赋予总统史无前例的权力,解雇司法人员,检察长,以及国家反腐败机构负责人(反腐败独立机构,188bet app或者IAAC)。一天之后,议会批准了这项立法以34票赞成,6票反对(36名议员缺席或弃权),尽管巴图尔加总统来自民主党,而竞争对手蒙古人民党(MPP)控制着议会。从技术上讲,法律不授予解雇权。直接交给总统,but rather to a three-member National Security Council (NSC) composed of the president,首相国会议长,以及一个称为司法总理事会的监督机构。但是巴图尔加总统统治着国家安全委员会,亲自任命司法总理事会的成员,赋予他有效的权力,随意罢免蒙古的法官和首席执法官员。Sure enough,法律通过后不久,巴图尔加驳回了head of the IAAC,the首席法官最高法院,and the prosecutor general.

This new legislation,a crippling blow to Mongolian democracy,has its origins in corruption,腐败很可能就是它的影响。巴图尔加总统通过声称他自己真的能够解决蒙古严重的腐败问题,诱使议会授予他如此非凡的权力。在他的statement to parliamentintroducing the new legislation,巴图尔加声称,该国的执法领导人是“阴谋系统的一部分”,该系统“以政治议程编造刑事案件”,同时掩盖其他案件。The president pointed to Mongolia's numerous unresolved corruption scandals to argue that the institutions of justice were "serving the officials who nominated and appointed them" rather than the public,他认为,降低司法机关的独立性,the prosecutorial apparatus,IAAC将使这些机构对打击腐败的大众意愿作出更积极的反应。

President Battulga is correct when he asserts that Mongolia has acorruption problem严肃的,也许是流行病,proportions.蒙古人定期名单腐败as one of the country's biggest issues (second only to unemployment in a 2018 survey) and政治体制如议会和政党中最腐败的实体。过去几年尤其是丑闻缠身。During the 2017 presidential campaign,三位候选人面临腐败指控;最令人震惊的是,MPP候选人,直到2019年1月,served as speaker of the Mongolian parliament—was caught on video discussing a plan to sell government offices in a $25 millionbribery scheme.此外,2018年末,记者们发现politically-connected Mongolians,including somewhere from23四十九在75名在任议员中,had been treating a government program designed to provide funding for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as a personal piggy bank,以低成本贷款超过一百万美元。除了这些丑闻,蒙古的执法记录不佳,加剧了其腐败问题。例如,in 2015,只有7%的病例IAAC调查的结果是定罪,and in 2018 public approval of the IAAC reached an空前低.

But is there any reason to believe that President Battulga is right that giving him greater personal control over law enforcement and the judiciary will lead to less corruption?所有的证据都指向不:

Continue reading渐次

Guest Post: Did the London Summit Make a Difference to Open Contracting?公开承包对解决采购腐败有何影响?

加文海曼,执行董事Open Contracting Partnership,提供今天的来宾帖子:

任何人都记得伦敦反腐败峰会去年五月?It seems like a long,long time ago now,but it was a big deal for us when 14 countries stepped forward at the Summit to implement the开放承包数据标准打开,分享,并跟踪他们每年在公共承包和采购上花费数十亿美元的所有数据和文件。

One year later,how well have these countries have followed through on their commitments,公开承包在打击公共采购中的腐败方面有多大的不同?毕竟,这是政府的首要腐败风险;这里有钱,opacity,政府的自由裁量权也发生了冲突。

The news is generally positive: the Summit commitments appear to have promoted genuine progress toward more open contracting in many of those countries,and the preliminary evidence indicates that such moves help reduce procurement corruption.Continue reading渐次

伦敦反腐败峰会——国家承诺记分卡,第1部分

好,between the ICIJ release of the searchablePanama Papers/Offshore Leaks database,the卢塞夫总统在巴西的弹劾,以及伦敦反腐败峰会,上周是反腐败界相当忙碌的一周。写的太多了,188bet app我几乎没有时间来处理这一切,但让我试着从伦敦峰会开始,多关注一点。I know a lot of our readers have been following it closely (and many participated),但很快:这次峰会是大卫卡梅伦政府的倡议,which brought together leaders and senior government representatives from over 40 countries to discuss how to move forward in the fight against global corruption.有些人对峰会抱有很高的希望,其他人则认为这是一种令人感觉良好的政治象征,其他人就在中间。

卡梅伦首相在峰会开始前就把出席会议的两个国家——阿富汗和尼日利亚——称之为“极度腐败”,但围绕这一问题的混乱局面稍微挑起了一些动静。alleged gaffe已经受到了媒体的广泛关注,所以我不会在这里多说,188bet app但它提醒了美国政治评论员迈克尔·金斯利(Michael Kinsley)的老生常谈,当188bet apppolitician accidentally tells the truth我要把重点放在峰会的主要文件上:联合国公报首脑会议参加者发布,以及个别国家声明.已经有很多人对公报做出了早期反应,有些人相当乐观,some quite critical (see,例如,在这里,在这里,在这里,和在这里)很多公报都使用相当通用的语言,它的许多重点是加强现有法律的执行,加强国际合作和信息交流,支持现有机构和公约,探索新机制的建立。All that is fine,其中的一些事实上可能是结果,but to my mind the most interesting parts of the Communique are those that explicitly announce that intention of the participating governments to take pro-transparency measures in four specific areas:

  1. Gathering more information on the true beneficial owners of companies (and possibly other legal entities,like trusts),也许是通过中央公共登记处,只有执法部门才能使用,或可供公众使用(见公报第4段)。
  2. 提高公共承包的透明度,包括默认开放公共采购,and providing usable and timely open data on public contracting activities (see Communique paragraph 9).(实际上这里有点含糊不清。当公报要求“默认开放”公共采购时,可能意味着更大的透明度,或者它可能会呼吁使用公开招标流程来增加竞争。Given the surrounding context,原来的意思似乎是有意的。The thrust of the recommendation seems to be increasing procurement transparency rather than increasing procurement competition.)
  3. 通过加强真正独立的最高审计机关提高预算透明度,and the publication of these institutions' findings (see Communique paragraph 10).
  4. Strengthening protections for whistleblowers and doing more to ensure that credible whistleblower reports prompt follow-up action from law enforcement (see Communique paragraph 13).

Again,这与公报中包含的内容相差甚远。但这四个行动领域给我的印象是(a)后果重大,(b)公报中要求在国内一级采取相对具体的新的实质性行动的部分。所以,I thought it might be a useful (if somewhat tedious) exercise to go through each of the 41 country statements to see what each of the Summit participants had to say in each of these four areas.这当然不是一个完整的“报告卡”,尽管这篇文章的标题,但对于那些有兴趣对《公报》所列一些主要行动项目的实际国家承诺程度进行评估的其他人来说,这也许是一个有益的开端。所以,一个国家一个国家,topic-by-topic,简要而肮脏地总结了首脑会议与会者就每一个问题所宣布或承诺的内容。(因为时间太长了,I'm going to break the post into two parts.今天我要给阿富汗-马耳他提供信息,and Thursday's post will give the info for Mexico–United States).Continue reading渐次